Patent Ownership Basics
Ownership of a patent is important because the owner of the patent
enjoys all of the rights, title and interest granted by the patent.
Normally patent rights are held by the
inventors until those rights are
assigned in a written Patent Assignment agreement, even if the employee
created the invention within the scope of employment (with a few exceptions
such as the "hired-to-invent doctrine"). It is important to establish
ownership of a patent before filing a patent application to avoid future
The owner of a patent can do the following with their patent rights:
- License the patent rights to one or more third-parties to collect
- Sell the patent rights;
- Sue a patent infringer; or
- Manufacture, offer for sale, sell or use a product covered by the
patent without infringing the patent.
If an inventor is not the owner of the
patent, the inventor will have none of these rights.
What Law Determines Patent Ownership?
Even though a United States patent is a federal legal right,
ownership of the patent is determined under the relevant
state law. However, changes in patent ownership are recorded
with the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office to place the public on notice of
ownership interests in the patent.
Patent Inventorship vs. Patent Ownership
Many people get confused between patent inventorship and patent
ownership. An individual can be an inventor but
not an owner of the patent rights
(e.g. where they assigned their patent rights to a third-party). In
addition, an individual or company may be an owner of the patent
rights but not an inventor where they were assigned the patent rights by the
inventor. It should be noted that a company can never be an inventor.
Joint Inventorship Usually Means Joint Ownership
If two or more inventors are named on a patent application, the patent
rights most likely are jointly owned by the joint inventors unless
a written Patent Assignment agreement has been executed by the joint
inventors assigning their ownership rights to another individual or company.
If the joint inventors are part of unrelated entities (e.g. a consultant
working for a company), the patent rights will be jointly owned
unless there is a written agreement indicating otherwise.
Problems with Joint Ownership
Patent ownership by more than one individual or entity is typically not
recommended because of the following potential problems:
- Co-Owner Independently Licenses. A co-owner
could license the patent rights to a third-party without paying any of
the other co-owners any of the monies received.
- Co-Owner Starts Competing Company. A co-owner
could form a competing company and sell a competing product without
infringing upon the patent because they are a co-owner of the patent.
- All Co-Owners Must Sue Infringer. If a patent
is jointly owned by two or more individuals/entities, then a patent
infringement lawsuit against an infringer can only be filed if
all of the co-owners jointly file the
Solutions to Joint Inventorship
Below are some potential solutions to joint inventorship to avoid the
above indicated problems of co-ownership:
- Form a Company. The most common
solution to resolving the ownership problems with joint inventorship is
to form a new company owned by the joint inventors (and possibly any
investors) and then have a
Patent Assignment signed by the joint inventors assigning their
ownership rights in the patent to the company. You can do this
after filing a patent application, but it is recommended that you form
your company before filing the patent application if possible to
efficiently handle the patent application filing. Forming a company has
the following benefits:
- Patent Infringement. The company will
then be the sole owner of the patent resulting in the ability to
bring a patent infringement lawsuit without including any other
- Licensing Royalties. The company will
also be able to license the patent rights to a third-party and all
of the revenues received will be distributed to the owners of the
company (i.e. joint inventors) pursuant to the rules set by the
- Problems. If there are problems in the
future between the owners of the company, the rules of the company
typically have standard buy out provisions to compensate a co-owner
that decides to leave (or that is forced out by the other co-owner).
- Contract Between Joint Inventors. If forming
a company is not desirable, another possible solution is to have a
contract signed by all of the joint inventors indicating their
respective rights. For example, the parties could agree that none
of the co-owners are able to license the patent rights. The
contract could also specify that if a license by one of the joint
inventors occurs that the other joint inventors would receive a
percentage of the royalties paid under the license. Please keep in
mind that this is not recommended because of the difficulties associated
with drafting such an agreement. If you decide to use a contract
instead of a company, you should retain a qualified corporate attorney
to assist you in the preparation of the contract to cover your future
- Consulting Agreements. If you are a company
hiring an independent contractor to consult on a new project and the
consultant could potentially develop inventive subject matter resulting
in them becoming a joint inventor, a provision should be added to the
consulting agreement identifying who will be the owner of the inventive
subject matter developed by the consultant and the company. It is
typical to have a provision in the consulting agreement that specifies
that the company hiring the consultant will be the sole owner of the
patent rights regardless of who invents the same and that the consultant
agrees to execute a patent assignment agreement officially transferring
any patent rights they jointly invented.
Can a Patent Assignment be Filed After a Patent Application is Filed?
A Patent Assignment agreement can be executed and recorded with the USPTO
any time after a patent application is filed including after a patent is
granted. Hence, you can file a patent application in the name of the
individual joint inventors initially, form a company a few months later and
then have the joint inventors assign their ownership rights to the company
then. However, it is generally recommended to have a Patent Assignment
executed simultaneously with the patent application to avoid issues where
one of the co-inventors decides later to not assign their ownership rights.